by Catherine Lotrionte

In this issue of International Engagement on Cyber, authors from academia, government, and the cyber industry discuss the effects of the Snowden revelations on international cyber development. Cyber IV also evaluates Japan’s national cybersecurity strategy, suggests improved government and private sec­tor cybersecurity practices, and theorizes military actions in the information age.



Snowden and U.S. Cyber Power by Dave Weinstein

EU/U.S. Approaches to Data Privacy and the “Brussels Effect”: A Comparative Analysis by Franz-Stefan Gady

Good Cyber Governance: The Human Rights and Multi-Stakeholder Approach by Anja Mihr

Detaching Internet Governance from the State: Globalizing the IANA by Milton Mueller

Cyberdefense: The Worst of All Cyber Construction Sites by Sandro Gaycken


Taking Control of Our Cyber Future by Melissa E. Hathaway and John N. Stewart Despite efforts by experienced and driven professionals, multiple cybersecurity challenges plague us today. Key indicators suggest that we are not making enough progress and, in fact, are possibly going backwards. (click to view FREE content)

The Private Sector: A Reluctant Partner in Cybersecurity by Amitai Etzioni The private sector has demonstrated a reluctance to independently adopt stronger cybersecurity measures and has resisted federal attempts at regulation. There can be no reliable cybersecurity for the public sector and public goods without heightened levels of cybersecurity in the private sector.

Cybersecurity Investments in the Private Sector: The Role of Governments by Lawrence A. Gordon, Martin P. Loeb, and William Lucyshyn Cybersecurity risks have become a major concern to profit-oriented corporate senior managers and Boards of Directors. This article will analyze policies that governments could and should adopt in order to foster increased investments in cybersecurity-related activities by profit-oriented corporations.


National Cyber Security Strategy: Are We Making Progress? Japan’s Efforts and Challenges by Yoko Nitta In the one year since Japan enacted its national cybersecurity strategy, the nation has both succeeded in developing its cyber capabilities as well as struggled to achieve certain goals.


The Command Imperative: Crafting Protocols for Cyber Conflict by Jarno Limnéll Cyber warfare lacks accepted command and control strategies and governing protocols. As a result, civilized nations must craft globally understood conventions for cyber defense, command and control strategies, and assist allies.

The Hyper-Personalization of War: Cyber, Big Data, and the Changing Face of Conflict by Charlie J. Dunlap, Jr. “Big Data” technologies mainly intended for commercial use enable not only acquisition and archiving of vast amounts of data, but also empower a radically enhanced ability for rapid analysis. The convergence of these technologies will permit what might be called “the hyper-personalization of war.”

Inverted-Militarized-Diplomacy: How States Bargain with Cyber Weapons by Richard B. Andres Today, states are using inverted-diplomacy with cyber weapons. States regularly employ an inverted-diplomatic model in which, rather than making demands backed by threats, they use their militaries assets to seize what they want and only later use their diplomats to prevent repri­sal and escalation.

Cyber Deterrence Isn’t MAD; It’s Mosaic by Ben Buchanan There is no dominant strategy for cyber deterrence, but rather a mosaic of different approach­es. Using the United States as an example, this article identifies different potential threats and how a mosaic response of multiple kinds of deterrence is best.

Managing Asymmetries in Chinese and American Cyber Power by Greg Austin China’s military leaders are deeply disturbed by U.S. policy and see it as new evidence of mus­cle-flexing and dominating behavior. The United States can maintain its apparent insistence on doctrines of dominance and preemption, or begin pursue a new posture of “mutual” security and strategic stability in cyber space.

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