16.2_cover INTRODUCTION 

by Stéphane Dujarric

The question of reforming the United Nations is almost as old as the United Nations itself. In this issue of the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, several distinguished scholars examine how different UN reform efforts have fared in recent years and what can be learned from them.


Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and UN Reform by Lise Morjé Howard

A Conversation with UN High Commissioner for Human Rights interview with Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein

Accessing the World’s Most Exclusive Club Influencing Decision-Making on the UN by Sabine Hassler

The Peacekeeping Quagmire by Richard Gowan

Time to Bring the United Nations Security Council into the 21st Century by Nancy Soderberg

International Criminal Justice Learning from Reality by Luis Moreno-Ocampo

A Conversation with Claudio Acioly Jr. on UN-Habitat interview with Claudio Acioly Jr.


Chinese Universities Capital for the Beijing Consensus ALAN HUNTER - The reform of China’s higher education institutions is at the center of the Chinese government’s plans to craft a new global “Beijing Consensus” focused on China. The reforms have largely succeeded in making China the center of focus of many students in developing countries. Alan Hunter discusses the Chinese government’s goals, the facets of this reform, and its major outcomes.

Agriculture, Water and Nationhood RUTH BEILIN - When The Agricultural Competiveness Green Paper (ACGP) appeared in early December 2014, indicating 27 new large-scale water and infrastructure projects had been proposed as part of the Australian government and stakeholder consultative process, a whiff of nostalgia and optimism emerged. However, the rhetoric underpinning agriculture and water policies contains two narratives: the first is the overt drive for continuing exports and increasing productivity by doubling food and fibre exports; and the second represents the harsh, less discussed realities associated with the fallout from these policies since national policies left agrarianism behind and entered an economic rationalist model.

Map Power and Map Methodologies for Social Justice SHILOH KRUPAR - Maps, as incredibly effective visual tools, are created upon undeniably political foundations. With the advent of map and mapmaking technologies, cultivating “map literacy” should be a major priority within international relations and social justice education.


Shift in US- Cuba Policy Implications for US-Latin American Relations MICHAEL SHIFTER - The restoration of diplomatic and economic ties between the United States and Cuba could bring about a broad new era for US trade, diplomacy, and strategic interests across the hemisphere. Indeed, as Shifter writes, by sweeping aside the most potent source of anti-US sentiment in the region, the reversal on Cuba policy could well be the most single important US initiative toward Latin America since Presidents Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos signed the Panama Canal Treaties in 1977.

The Wreck of the Sewol The Sinking South Korean Body Politic JOHN LIE - The sinking of the Sewol Ferry in South Korea represented the wreck of the South Korea
body politic, giving light to corruption and mismanagement at key levels of the government.
Dr. Lie’s article goes in-depth about the gradual decline of South Korean governance and
its complex relationships with economic, social, and spiritual factors. 183

A New Era in US Immigration Enforcement Implications for the Policy Debate MARC R. ROSENBLUM - In the last 30 years, the US immigration enforcement system has been transformed. Combined with new practices and technology that have made immigration enforcement more effective, the Obama administration’s executive actions to reduce certain deportations may create a breakthrough in long-stalled efforts to pass legislation on comprehensive immigration reform.


Square Pegs, Round Holes, and Gray Zone Conflicts Time to Step Back MAREN LEED - Leed argues that the rapidly changing global security environment has exposed the inability of existing US laws, policies, and organizations to respond to new threats. Other interna- tional actors, however, are exploiting these “gray zones” using approaches in the military, economic, and information spheres that leverage traditional US structures against us. Leed calls for policymakers to step back and examine the approaches used by these actors to adapt US structures, while continuing forward in current gray zone conflicts.

Resisting the Temptation of War The US Response to Terrorist Groups  CHRISTOPHER MCINTOSH - McIntosh examines the current state of the war on terror and the implications that result from the United States framing the conflict as a war. He argues that treating the conflict as a war makes US strategy less effective and reduces the chance of victory over groups such as Al Qaeda. McIntosh concludes that the United States should not use the framework of war to address the threats from Al Qaeda and ISIS, and argues that the United States should consider all strategic possibilities before committing to war against terrorist groups. 


Colors of Rainbow, Shades of Family The Road to Marriage Equality and Democratization of Intimacy in Taiwan
VICTORIA HSIU-WEN HSU - Though no country in Asia has passed marriage equality laws yet, Taiwan’s recent legislative attempts to do so through the Diverse Families Movement are opening the conversation.

Prioritizing Health and Non-Communicable Diseases in Post-2015 Development KATIE DAIN - The post-2015 development agenda must prioritize the inclusion of non-communicable dis- eases in order to promote sustainable development around the world.

The Torture Report and the Accountability Gap STEPHEN I. VLADECK - The recent release of the Executive Summary of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence’s “Study on CIA Detention and Interrogation Program” reinvigorated the debate on how and whether to handle criminal prosecutions for those related to the to the torture or mistreatment. Steve Vladeck establishes a five-point plan to foster accountability for governmental misconduct.


Economic Institutions on Demand Evolving Financial Governance in the Gulf Cooperation Council States
 KAREN E. YOUNG - Institutionalization in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States is proceeding within the financial sector in many ways as a result of economic growth, and as Gulf states create new economic institutions to govern their markets, they are also creating a framework that can both limit and enable broader political goals of financial and economic statecraft.

The Banker, the Arms Dealer, and the Activist Unlikely Allies for an Arms Trade Treaty 
ANNA MACDONALD AND ALLISON PYTLAK - The Arms Trade Treaty is the first global treaty to regulate the conventional arms trade. It resulted from more than a decade of sustained advocacy and campaigning by a diverse interna- tional alliance of non-governmental organizations working in partnership with governments and the United Nations. Global civil society will continue to be instrumental in both the drive for universalization and the push for effective implementation as the Treaty goes into effect.


The Energy Revolution A Resource Blessing or Resource Curse? GEORGE SHAMBAUGH AND AARON TAYLER - The promise of plentiful, inexpensive energy and the environmental benefits of burning natu- ral gas rather than coal or oil create powerful incentives to develop natural gas production and transit capacity globally. We argue that the infrastructure requirements for transporting natural gas and the time lag between local development and its impact on global markets created by the need to build that infrastructure create a window of opportunity during which shale gas deposits are more likely to generate “resource blessings” than the “resource curse” that has previously haunted many who discovered oil.

How the Illegal Wildlife Trade is Fueling Armed Conflict DAVID H. BARRON - The illegal wildlife trade, as a major source of funding for terrorist organizations, threatens not only ecology but also national security. In order to combat this menace, both the public and private sector must take a multipronged approach involving international cooperation, community collaboration, and development of awareness to combat demand.


It’s Never Too Late to Get Nation Building Right Review of Righting the Balance: How You Can Help Protect America by Daniel Serwer KEITH W. MINES

Order for Our Times Review of World Order by Henry Kissinger MARC A. SOREL


An Inside View on the European Union an interview with SIR MICHAEL LEIGH

The European Union is facing multiple layers of challenges, both internally and externally. While those challenges are posing questions to the outlook of the EU as a political and an economic union, Sir Leigh suggests that bringing moderate economic growth in the medium-term would be the most urgent and important step for the EU to take.

Inequality in the Developing World an interview with FRANCISCO H.G. FERREIRA

Poverty reduction and inequality remain important policy issues that demand particular attention in developing countries as they experience growth. As they progress into the future, policies that promote a more equal distribution of growth and develop resilient institutions will be essential.


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