16.1 - Inequality


INTRODUCTION

by Helen Clark

As the world gears up to embark on a new development agenda, tackling inequality in all its manifestations—in income, health, education, political empowerment, and other areas—is of critical importance for human development. Addressing inequality throughout the world requires a multidimensional approach.


FORUM: INEQUALITY

Urban Transformation, Inequality, and the Future of Indian Cities by Seth Schindler

Tackling Inequality: Part and Parcel of Kenya’s Fight Against Poverty by Hannah Kim & Thomas O'Brien

The Veil Ban in Europe: Gender Equality or Gendered Islamophobia? by Shaista Gohir

Closing the Gap in Indigenous Disadvantage: A Trajectory of Indigenous Inequality in Australia by Megan Davis

Grain Price Spikes and Revolution an interview with Lester Brown 

Globalization and Its Discontents by David Gow


CONFLICT & SECURITY

The Abe Factor by Sheila Smith - This article concerns Japanese Prime Minister Abe Shinzo and the way his security policies have been received both domestically and abroad, particularly in China and South Korea. The impact of Japan’s new foreign security policy on U.S. alliance politics is also examined toward the end of the article.

Collective Insecurity in the Sahel: Fighting Terror with Good Governance by Richard Downie - Why is it that Nigeria, urged on by its international partners, has been unable to make a breakthrough in tackling Boko Haram? Overcoming regional terrorism is an arduous, long-term endeavor requiring a combination of elements that have been absent from Nigeria’s response so far. The international community must also rethink its strategy for supporting African allies confronted with terrorism by focusing on terrorism’s root causes, rather than solely military “train and equip” programs.

The Ukraine Invasion and Public Opinion by Harley Balzer - Harley Balzer analyzes public opinion in Russia and Ukraine, arguing that propaganda obscures the desires of the Russian and Ukrainian public. Using survey data as the basis for his analysis, he finds that the majority of Ukrainians express a preference for Ukrainian independence and that most Russians oppose military intervention or financial support for Crimea. Balzer concludes with a list of proposals that would limit the impact of Russian propaganda and contain Russia’s aggression.


POLITICS & DIPLOMACY

Headwinds: Growth, Democracy, and the Middle Class in Latin America by Margaret Hayes - In Latin America, the past decade’s headwinds of growth are receding. The region must turn to domestic engines of growth, pursue growth-enhancing reforms, and create new spaces for regional cooperation.

Hostage Negotiations and Other Talks with Terrorists: Price vs. Principle by Audrey Kurth Cronin - Negotiating with non-state actors that use terrorism confronts the United States government with grim choices. For example, should the U.S. enrich terrorist groups by paying ransoms or risk the publicized killing of Americans hostages like James Foley? Yet, choosing between “talks” or “no talks” is a false dichotomy. Counterterrorism policy cannot be effective in the absence of a long-term political strategy, and sometimes that includes carefully targeted negotiations.

Diagnosing the Health of Russia’s Third Sector: Putin, Women’s Health, and Foreign NGOs by Lena Surzhko-Harned Putin’s laws regulating foreign NGO activity in Russia have put a considerable strain on the functions of non-governmental women’s health organizations. These organizations and women’s healthcare have an important connection to the development of a healthy democracy and society, as well as the protection of human rights.


CULTURE & SOCIETY

Believable Victims: Asylum Credibility and the Struggle for Objectivity by Michael Kagan - As the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees releases more information on the best way to adjudicate asylum cases, and especially with the structure proposed in 2003, the United States’ system risks falling behind.

Eroding Cultures and Environments: What a Rapidly Changing Earth Means for the Richness of Human Experienceby Paul Robbins - Rapidly changing landscapes require policies that strike a balance between natural cultural change and environmental protection, but avoid treating declining indigenous cultures as endangered species.


LAW & ETHICS

Sex-Selective Abortion Bans: Anti-Immigration or Anti-Abortion? by Sital Kalantry - State legislatures across the United States have considered—and in many cases enacted—bans on sex-selective abortion in recent years. In some cases, these measures seem to specifically target Asian immigrants, who are sometimes stereotyped to prefer boys. Amid scant evidence for that presumption, Asian immigrant growth rates are only part of the explanation for this complicated trend.

The Role of Religion in Constitutions Emerging from Arab Spring Revolutions by Evelyn Mary Aswad - Tunisia and Egypt are the only two countries that had constitutional changes after the Arab Spring revolutions. Although these new constitutions have gained praises from Western governments, there are still discrepancies between the clauses that involve religion and these states’ obligations under international human rights law in practice.


BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

The Rise of Chinese Multinationals: A Strategic Threat or an Economic Opportunity? by Christoph Lattemann & Ilan Alon - The expansion of Chinese multinational enterprises is often perceived to be a threat to global security, but their motivations are largely misunderstood. It is economic motives, not geopolitics, that ultimately drive Chinese outward foreign direct investment.


SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Terrorist Migration to Social Media by Gabriel Weimann - Terrorists’ usage of social media has already had devastating effects and is only likely to continue growing, due to greater ease of recruitment and interaction through social media. This phenomenon presents new challenges and demands an evolution in counterterrorism.

The International Seabed Authority Turns Twenty by Caitlyn Antrim - The mining of the international seabed for mineral resources has emerged as an area of great economic interest. The international regime formed to govern the practice has been a success so far and offers lessons for other international organizations.


BOOKS

Not as Dire as It Seems by Christopher Yung - Review of Asia’s Cauldron: The South China Sea and the End of a Stable Pacific by Robert Kaplan

The Costs of the Knife by David H. Schanzer & Timothy Nichols - Review of The Way of the Knife: The CIA, a Secret Army and a War at the Ends of the Earth by Mark Mazzetti

Experimental Transnational Relations: A New Paradigm for Combating Global Challenges? by Angelic Young - Review of Global Shell Games: Experiments in Transnational Relations, Crime, and Terrorism by Michael G. Findley, Daniel L. Nielson, and J.C. Sharman


A LOOK BACK

Lessons from the Irish Peace Process an interview with Gerry Adams - Although the political compromise in Northern Ireland was and remains imperfect, it illuminates potential lessons for other seemingly intractable conflicts around the globe.

Assessing Diplomatic Tools for Advancing Human Dignity and Democracy an interview with Tom Malinowski - The United States faces a range of challenges related to democracy and human rights around the world. Tom Malinowski discusses the humanitarian needs in Syria and Iraq, the advantages of Magnitsky Act-type sanctions, U.S. policy for providing civil society assistance overseas, the struggle for democracy in Bahrain, and the importance of careful public rhetoric.



 

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